Bonn Climate Change Conference - October 2014
The sixth part of the second session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP 2-6) under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) opens today in Bonn, Germany, and will conclude on 25 October 2014. The ADP will focus on preparing key documents for the 20th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 20) to the UNFCCC, scheduled to take place in Lima, Peru, in December 2014.
Under workstream 1 (the 2015 agreement), countries will continue elaborating the elements for a draft negotiating text, which will serve as the foundation for the final construction of the 2015 outcome. The ADP will also work on a draft decision that captures the type of information countries will provide when they communicate their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) and how these contributions will be considered. This draft decision will be submitted for consideration in Lima.
Under workstream 2 (pre-2020 ambition), Technical Expert Meetings (TEMs) will focus on opportunities for action on non-carbon dioxide (non-CO2) greenhouse gases (GHGs) and carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS). Countries will prepare a draft decision on pre-2020 ambition for consideration in Lima.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ADP PROCESS
The international political response to climate change began with the adoption of the UNFCCC in 1992, which sets out a framework for action aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of GHGs to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The Convention, which entered into force on 21 March 1994, now has 196 parties.
In December 1997, COP 3 adopted the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC that committed industrialized countries and countries in transition to a market economy to achieve emission reduction targets. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005, and now has 192 parties.
DURBAN: The UN Climate Change Conference in Durban, South Africa, took place from 28 November to 11 December 2011. The Durban outcomes covered a wide range of topics, notably the establishment of a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, and agreement to launch the ADP with a mandate “to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties.” The ADP is scheduled to complete these negotiations by 2015, with the new instrument entering into force by 2020. In addition, the ADP was mandated to explore actions to close the pre-2020 ambition gap in relation to the 2°C target.
ADP 1: The first session of the ADP (ADP 1) took place in conjunction with the Bonn Climate Change Conference from 17-24 May 2012, in Bonn, Germany. Discussions centered on the agenda and the election of officers. After nearly two weeks of discussions, the ADP plenary agreed on the election of officers and adopted the agenda, initiating two workstreams, one addressing matters related to paragraphs 2-6 of Decision 1/CP.17 (the 2015 agreement) and the other on paragraphs 7-8 (pre-2020 ambition).
ADP 1 INFORMAL SESSION: The informal session of the ADP took place in Bangkok, Thailand, from 30 August to 5 September 2012. Parties convened in roundtable sessions to discuss their vision and aspirations for the ADP, the desired results of its work and how these results can be achieved. Parties also discussed how to enhance ambition, the role of means of implementation and how to strengthen international cooperative initiatives, as well as the elements that could frame the ADP’s work.
ADP 1-2: The second part of the first session of the ADP (ADP 1-2) took place from 27 November to 7 December 2012, in Doha, Qatar, in conjunction with COP 18. Parties, inter alia, agreed to: immediately advance its substantive discussions; move to a more focused mode of work in 2013; and encourage broad participation by party representatives and accredited observer organizations.
ADP 2-1: The first part of the second session of the ADP (ADP 2-1) met in Bonn, Germany, from 29 April to 3 May 2013. ADP 2-1, which was structured around workshops and roundtable discussions covering the ADP’s two workstreams, aimed at preparing the basis for future discussions by gathering concrete proposals on, for example, key elements that the 2015 agreement could contain and sectors where further mitigation action could take place before 2020.
ADP 2-2: The second part of the second session of the ADP (ADP 2-2) met in conjunction with the Bonn Climate Change Conference from 4-13 June 2013, in Germany. The meeting was structured around workshops and roundtables on the two workstreams. Parties, inter alia: agreed on the need to convene at least one session in 2014; invited, under workstreams 1 and 2, submissions by parties and observers building on, and in relation to, the ADP’s conclusions; invited, under workstream 2, submissions by parties and observers on further activities for its plan of work in 2014; invited the incoming Co-Chairs to propose, drawing upon submissions, a balanced, focused and more formal mode of work for consideration at the third part of the second session of the ADP (ADP 2-3). No agreement was reached on establishing one or more contact groups to move part of the work to a more formal setting.
ADP 2-3: The third part of the second session of the ADP (ADP 2-3) took place in conjunction with COP 19 from 12-23 November 2013, in Warsaw, Poland. Guided by questions from the Co-Chairs, work during the first week took place under the two workstreams. Workstream 1 was discussed in open-ended consultations on content and elements of the 2015 agreement, including adaptation, mitigation, technology, finance, capacity building, and transparency. Workstream 2 was discussed in open-ended consultations on the way forward, as well as workshops on lessons learned from relevant experience of other multilateral environmental agreements, and on pre-2020 ambition, urbanization and the role of governments in facilitating climate action in cities. The meeting adopted a decision that invites parties to initiate or intensify domestic preparations for their INDCs, and resolves to accelerate the full implementation of the Bali Action Plan and pre-2020 ambition.
ADP 2-4: The fourth part of the second session of the ADP (ADP 2-4) took place from 10-14 March 2014, in Bonn, Germany. Under workstream 1 the meeting convened in open-ended consultations on agenda item 3, which addressed: adaptation; INDCs; finance, technology and capacity building (means of implementation); ambition and equity; mitigation; transparency of action and support; and other issues related to elements. An in-session workshop addressed domestic preparations for INDCs. Under workstream 2, TEMs on renewable energy and energy efficiency convened. The session also agreed on establishing a contact group and continuing under that format at subsequent ADP sessions.
ADP 2-5: The fifth part of the second session of the ADP (ADP 2-5) took place in conjunction with the Bonn Climate Change Conference from 4-14 June 2014, in Germany. ADP 2-5 convened in a contact group, structured around workstream 1 and workstream 2. Under workstream 1, the ADP discussed: mitigation; adaptation; finance, technology and capacity building (means of implementation); transparency; INDCs; and other issues related to elements. Convergence emerged on some elements to be included in the 2015 agreement, although challenges remain, such as the relationship between INDCs and the 2015 agreement, and how to assess the aggregate level of ambition. Under workstream 2, TEMs on the urban environment and land use were organized, and a forum on the role of cities and subnational authorities in mitigation and adaptation also convened.
19th AND 20th MEETINGS OF THE MAJOR ECONOMIES FORUM ON ENERGY AND CLIMATE (MEF): The 19th meeting of the MEF took place from 10-12 July 2014, in Paris, France, and focused on: climate finance; INDCs, as well as the international consultation period on these contributions; and rules and accounting standards regarding transparency, accountability and monitoring of actions and aid. The 20th meeting of the MEF convened on 21 September 2014, in New York, US. During the meeting, US Secretary of State John Kerry encouraged participating ministers to come forward with robust climate targets for an ambitious international climate agreement in 2015, and to explore how to capture related co-benefits. The MEF includes the largest GHG emitters, representing 80% of global emissions and of global energy consumption.
FIFTH PETERSBERG CLIMATE DIALOGUE: This meeting, which took place on 14-15 July 2014, in Berlin, Germany, met under the theme ‘Addressing the urgency – stepping up our contributions,’ and aimed to discuss new strategies in preparation for the Lima Climate Change Conference. The Dialogue focused on how to: reach consensus on key elements of the future climate regime, and adopt “an ambitious, effective and fair climate agreement” in Paris in 2015; ensure all relevant states have submitted their INDCs for the 2015 climate agreement in a timely manner to enable compliance with the 2°C limit; communicate that mitigation and adaptation measures benefit the economy; and create incentives to develop low-carbon technologies.
18th AND 19th BASIC MINISTERIAL MEETING ON CLIMATE CHANGE: The 18th Brazil, India, South Africa and China (BASIC) Ministerial Meeting took place from 7-8 August 2014, in New Delhi, India, and concluded with the adoption of a joint statement emphasizing the need to finalize the elements of a draft negotiating text for the 2015 agreement at COP 20. In the statement, ministers stress that: the six core elements for the 2015 outcome should be mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology development and transfer, transparency of action and support, and capacity building; the process and outcome must be in accordance with all the Convention principles; developed countries should take the lead in addressing climate change; all parties should communicate their INDCs as early as possible; and INDCs must include mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology and capacity building. The 19th BASIC Ministerial Meeting took place from 8-10 October 2014, in Sun City, South Africa. In their joint statement, BASIC countries outline their views on: the 2014 UN Climate Summit; enhanced pre-2020 ambition; the Lima Climate Change Conference; the 2015 agreement, including adaptation, support to developing countries and transparency; INDCs; and the role of existing institutions and mechanisms under the Convention post-2020, among other issues.
UN CLIMATE SUMMIT 2014: The UN Climate Summit was held on 23 September 2014, at UN Headquarters in New York, US, hosted by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. The Summit aimed to mobilize the political will necessary to reach a global agreement on climate change in 2015, and brought together over 100 Heads of State, together with government ministers and leaders from international organizations, business, finance, civil society and local communities. During the Summit, government representatives committed to a series of national actions on climate change and pledged a total of US$2.3 billion to the Green Climate Fund. In addition, private sector representatives announced initiatives, a New York Declaration on Forests was adopted by 32 governments and a new Global Mayors Compact was launched.
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