Daily report for 10 June 2023
Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2023
The first week of the 2023 Bonn Climate Change Conference came to an end without agreement on the meeting’s agendas. Awaiting news from Heads of Delegation, negotiations on most issues however proceeded as usual, with delegates debating draft text and carefully crafting bridging proposals.
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
Rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism established by Article 6.4 of the Paris Agreement: In informal consultations, Co-Facilitators Kate Hancock (Australia) and Sonam Tashi (Bhutan) invited parties’ views on elements for draft conclusions.
Several parties called for simple and concise draft conclusions that reflect the discussions and parties’ differing views on timing of authorization by host parties and the connection between the Article 6.4 registry and Article 6.2 international registry. One developing country emphasized reference be made to emissions avoidance and conservation enhancement activities.
Several parties proposed conducting joint intersessional work on authorization and the connection between the Article 6.4 registry and Article 6.2 registries, with some saying meetings should be conducted in a hybrid format to enhance participation.
The Co-Facilitators will prepare draft conclusions.
Subsidiary Body for Implementation
Matters relating to capacity building: In informal consultations co-facilitated by Catherine Goldberg (US), parties continued discussing the terms of reference (ToR) of the second review of the Paris Committee on Capacity Building (PCCB) and language on the role of the CMA therein.
On the ToR, parties converged on specifying the review will cover the progress of the PCCB and need for extension.
Parties converged on the COP reaffirming its decision to conduct the review, and inviting the CMA to participate in the review and affirm the COP decision on the matter. They agreed to discuss a draft CMA decision on the review in informal-informals.
Agenda Items Considered Jointly by the SBSTA and SBI
Review of the progress, effectiveness, and performance of the Adaptation Committee: In informal consultations, Co-Facilitators María del Pilar Bueno (Argentina) and Morgane Chiocchia (UK) invited parties’ views on draft conclusions. Parties suggested changes related to, among others:
- the CMA’s participation in the review;
- noting the limited engagement with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Working Group II;
- conducting activities related to locally-led adaptation; and
- the provision of resources to support the Committee’s work.
Glasgow–Sharm el-Sheikh work programme on the global goal on adaptation: In informal consultations, Co-Facilitator Janine Felson (Belize) invited parties’ views on draft conclusions related to the development of the framework for guiding the achievement of the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA) and the review of overall progress in achieving it.
Some developed countries questioned the reference to the framework reflecting common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR-RC), as referred to in the Convention, noting the GGA falls under the Paris Agreement. Many developing countries urged retaining the reference to CBDR-RC.
Parties emphasized the text does not adequately capture their proposals, including on specific targets and indicators and cross-cutting considerations. They indicated their intention to submit proposals in writing and called for sufficient time for discussions on the GGA during SB 58.
Matters relating to the Global Stocktake under the Paris Agreement: Contact Group Co-Chairs Alison Campbell (UK) and Joseph Teo (Singapore) invited parties’ views on two informal notes: one containing elements for SB conclusions and another containing elements for the outline of a draft CMA decision on the Global Stocktake (GST). Many developing countries questioned the Co-Chairs’ mandate for preparing the notes. Most comments focused on the outline of the draft CMA decision.
Many developing countries preferred including: a preamble; context or vision; cross-cutting general assessment of progress; thematic areas including mitigation, adaptation, means of implementation, response measures, loss and damage; international cooperation; and the way forward from the first GST. Several developing countries, stressing the importance of “memory,” called for a section on pre-2020 ambition and implementation. Many did not support including “road maps.”
Many developed countries proposed aligning the outline with Article 14 of the Paris Agreement, which calls for taking stock of collective progress towards achieving the Paris Agreement and its long-term goals and identifying actions for making progress. Several proposed having a streamlined outline with a few clear headings. Some suggested adding a section on guidance for nationally determined contributions (NDCs).
Parties mandated the Co-Chairs to revise the notes, emphasizing the need to reflect parties’ diverging views.
Sharm el-Sheikh joint work on implementation of climate action on agriculture and food security: In informal consultations, Co-Facilitators Lucia Perugini (Italy) and Milagros Sandoval (Peru) invited parties’ views on draft conclusions.
Parties agreed on the need to support workshop attendance by developing countries, but some developed countries noted such matters better be addressed under relevant finance items.
Parties discussed the scope of an annual synthesis report to be prepared by the Secretariat, with some noting it could result in an “overwhelming amount of information.” The Secretariat invited parties to specify the due date for the annual report and emphasized limited capacity constrains the provision of an overview of activities by financial entities and other international and regional organizations.
On a paragraph related to the Sharm El-Sheikh online portal for sharing agriculture-related information, a developing country group stressed submissions should be made by national focal points and country-designated agriculture contacts. The group emphasized information should not be made without the relevant country’s input. One developing country raised concerns about website management, noting outdated information on infrequently updated UN websites.
Discussions will continue in informal-informals.
Sharm el-Sheikh mitigation ambition and implementation work programme: Informal consultations were co-facilitated by Carlos Fuller (Belize) and Kay Harrison (New Zealand).
Several developing countries stated, given there is no agreement on the agenda, they did not agree with the consultations.
Several developed and developing countries suggested a CMA decision on this item could welcome the start of the work programme and the organization of the first global dialogue and investment-focused event. Several stressed the importance of clear framing for further events, with some calling for regional events, while others said all work programme events should be inclusive.
The Co-Facilitators noted there was no consensus on the way forward.
Mandated Events and Other Sessions
Second Glasgow Dialogue on loss and damage: Participants reported on discussions held during the previous day’s breakout group session. They emphasized funding windows and triggers that ensure timely and effective support across all phases of loss and damage, from preparedness and immediate responses to events, to recovery and rehabilitation phases. At the same time, they noted these phases are interconnected and strong preparedness supports effective immediate responses and longer-term recovery efforts. Participants also discussed the unique funding challenges presented by non-economic losses, which are by their nature difficult to assign a cost to. Another area of broad agreement concerned the need for direct local access to funds, as well as to grant-based funding that does not increase debt.
In the subsequent discussion, the UN OFFICE FOR THE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS (UNOCHA) highlighted the importance of coordination to avoid “lost time and more work for overstretched aid workers.” The UN OFFICE FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (UNDRR) urged, among others, a layered approach to funding, with each layer supported by a specific funding instrument, and the right evidence base and data to quantify loss and damage. The SOLOMON ISLANDS called for the fund to respond to ocean-based loss and damage. ECUADOR stressed the fund should be standalone, rather than inserted into existing mechanisms. ETHIOPIA supported separate windows for rapid response, reconstruction, and slow-onset events, noting the need for flexibility in categorizing events.
Third meeting of the technical dialogue under the first Global Stocktake: Harald Winkler (South Africa) and Farhan Akthar (US) co-chaired the roundtable on integrated and holistic approaches.
Many developing countries discussed ways in which the global architecture is unjust and emphasized the need for policy space to achieve their national development goals. Speakers emphasized the importance of this discussion given the need to act systemically and to collectively move to a new paradigm.
Several speakers emphasized the need for climate-resilient development aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Some speakers called for ensuring human rights, public participation, and intergenerational equity in implementing the Paris Agreement, including the new NDCs. Linkages with biodiversity, water, and the ocean were highlighted.
Among other actions, speakers called for: phasing out fossil fuel subsidies; recognizing the implications of some taxation and trade policies for food security and development needs in other countries; and adopting whole-of-society approaches.
Executive Secretary meeting with observers: Executive Secretary Simon Stiell shared reflections on ongoing Secretariat-led work on strengthening observer engagement in the UNFCCC process, noting enhanced consideration of the needs of persons with disabilities in site design and pointing to capacity building for youth delegates. He highlighted measures aimed at addressing conflicts of interest, underscoring participant lists will now feature information on all badge types. He said participants will be asked to specify their organizational affiliation and opting-out thereof will be noted on the lists. Observers welcomed increased transparency as a valuable first step. They called for clear guidance on legitimate reasons for opting out, noting it should be limited to security considerations. Observers also called for having participants disclose their financial sponsorship, with exceptions for at-risk communities. Executive Secretary Stiell welcomed these remarks, noting ongoing discussions on sponsorship declarations.
Stakeholder consultations on the Sharm el-Sheikh dialogue on the scope of Article 2.1.c of the Paris Agreement (aligning finance flows) and its complementarity with Article 9 (climate finance): Tosi Mpanu Mpanu (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Facilitator of the dialogue in 2023, invited stakeholders’ perspective on the matter with a view to inform the organization of two workshops to be held in 2023.
Speakers emphasized the importance of redirecting finance flows while scaling up the provision of climate finance by developed countries. They pointed to developments such as: discussions on reforming multilateral development banks, the use of debt swaps, and the reallocation of special drawing rights; the UN Secretary-General’s initiative on net-zero accountability; and increasing investments in clean energy.
Other points related to, among others: the role of data to reduce uncertainty and foster investment in emerging markets; linkages to discussions on just transition; and hidden subsidies in the form of wealth capture by the Global North, women’s unpaid care work, and Indigenous Peoples’ stewardship in biodiversity conservation.
In the Corridors
Rumor has it, it is “global wellness day” somewhere in the outside world, noted a delegate prepared to spend a sunny Saturday indoors at the World Convention Center. “World weariness day, really…” quipped another, pointing to the perduring disagreement over the meeting’s agenda.
The day’s discussions underscored how strenuous the split is that delegates are maneuvering: in some rooms they are taking stock of collective progress in implementing the Paris Agreement; in others, especially those related to reviewing constituted bodies’ progress, it seems the Agreement is still fighting for its place.
“When you listen to these statements, do you ever lose the will to live?” sighed a seasoned observer, frustrated about the slow pace of the process amid incoming news of temperature and fire records. With many delegates out of steam, a walk along the Rhine during the Sunday break might be the wellness day everyone needs to turn things around.