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Daily report for 21 June 2006

3rd Session of the World Urban Forum (WUF3)

Participants at the third session of the World Urban Forum (WUF3) convened in plenary, dialogues and special sessions in the morning, followed by seven roundtable discussions and numerous networking events in the afternoon. The inaugural HABITAT Alumni Breakfast took place in the morning, which brought together nearly 100 delegates from the 1976 UN Conference on Human Settlements.


The morning plenary session convened under the theme of Partnership and Finance. Moderator Katherine Sierra, Vice-President, World Bank, acknowledged the tenth anniversary of National Aboriginal Day in Canada and outlined key public goods for which sustainable urban policies are necessary. Noting the projected growth of the urban population from two to four billion over the next 30 years, she said that, to be effective, urban development strategies in developing countries will need to take account of economic forces, social inclusion and environmental sustainability. She called for an open and frank dialogue on the impact of cities as engines of growth in developing countries, and for accentuating the positive role of urbanization. She emphasized the role of partnerships and the need for innovative and timely financing.

Mohammad Yousaf Pashtun, Afghanistans Minister of Urban Development, outlined the challenges and opportunities after 25 years of war in his country. He identified as challenges: lack of financial resources; security issues; rising poverty; urban population growth; immigration and repatriation; 65 percent of the population in informal settlements; and a 70 percent illiteracy rate. He noted a Compact agreed in London and adopted by the UN General Assembly to support his countrys reconstruction, with the World Bank providing funds mainly for infrastructure, but said resources are still inadequate. He underscored that cities have a central role to play in Afghanistans transition from a post-conflict emergency situation to stability, and called for the achievement of sustainable peace and development in his country through partnerships with the international community.

Pat Jacobsen, Chief Executive Officer, TransLink, Canada, briefed WUF3 participants on the funding mechanisms for the development of transportation infrastructure in Vancouver, including: partnerships with the federal government; revenue from users; and private sector financing in cooperation with public funding. She highlighted the importance of involving stakeholders in infrastructure development planning processes.

Robert Williams, Deputy Mayor of Georgetown, Guyana, said cities cannot be vibrant unless there is engagement at all levels. Emphasizing that it is no longer possible to operate in isolation in this technological era, he said partnerships are not an option but a requirement for the development of cities. He noted the need to move away from traditional sources of financing to meet the increasing costs of urban management. He called for the UN to urge governments to agree to direct negotiations between international financial institutions and municipalities to fast-track loans and grants for urban development.

Dialogues and Special Sessions

URBAN SAFETY AND SECURITY: Taking Responsibility: Anna Maria Tremonti, host of CBCs The Current programme, opened the dialogue session, which focused on two main topics: disaster planning and risk reduction, and crime and violence prevention.

Ian Davis, Cranfield University, urged distinguishing between natural hazards and disasters due to human-caused vulnerability, and noted that shareholders can pressure companies towards high environmental and social standards.

Mark Pelling, Kings College London, highlighted that disaster planning is often based on media-filtered information rather than solid evidence.

Pushpa Pathak, on behalf of Ghulam Sakhi Noorzad, Mayor of Kabul, noted the double challenge of civil unrest and natural disasters in Afghanistan.

Yoshinobu Fukasawa, Director for Planning, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Japan, discussed lessons learned following the Kobe earthquake, underscoring the importance of simple tools as well as geographical information systems in reconstruction efforts.

Elina Palm, UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, highlighted progress achieved through the Kobe Framework Agreement on Disaster Risk Reduction.

Participants raised many issues, including: the role of womens grassroots information networks in crisis situations; the need for greater dialogue with faith-based organizations; the need for donors to consider local needs; and addressing social problems that follow disasters, such as the exploitation of children. One delegate noted that hazards only become disasters due to vulnerability, remarking that earthquakes dont kill people, poorly designed buildings do. Another questioned the merit of aiding resettlement in regions known to be at risk.

Franz Vanderschueren, UN-HABITAT, suggested that central governments are reluctant to delegate responsibility to local authorities. Juan Manuel Ospina Restrepo, Secretary of Government, Bogot, Colombia, emphasized targeted solutions.

Caroline Kidu, Minister of Community Development, Papua New Guinea, urged moving beyond short-lived political cycles. Yasmin Bacus, Minister of Community Safety and Liason, Province of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, noted that a unique public engagement process holds the South African government accountable, and Prema Gopalan, Huairou Commission, stated that involving communities in disaster risk reduction planning gives rise to a sense of ownership.

Participants also discussed the rise of gangs within aboriginal communities, the dynamics of security post-9/11, and the need to engage youth in urban planning. Delegates called for legal access for slum dwellers, minimizing displacements following armed conflict, and translating international obligations into local policies. The merits of a more integrated approach between hazard risk management and crime programmes were also considered.

Closing remarks by Thomas Melin, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, highlighted the vulnerability of girls to sexual violence in Africa, noted the success of female police stations in Nicaragua, and stressed the importance of strong mayoral initiatives.

MUNICIPAL FINANCE: Innovation and Collaboration: Moderator Anwar Versi, Editor, African Business, opened the dialogue on municipal finance by noting municipalities constant need for finance.

On enhancing resources, Jacqueline Schafer, USAID, described building credit worthiness to help municipalities access market-oriented finance and said utilities must be financially viable.

Lamine Mbassa, Director of Economic and Financial Affairs, Urban Community of Douala, Cameroon, described using Doualas stock exchange to raise funds for infrastructure rehabilitation and noted the importance of establishing credit worthiness.

Zenaida Moya, Mayor of Belize, described the Commonwealth Local Government Forums work and noted local governments must have the responsibility, power, funding, equitable approaches and technical capacity to undertake their tasks.

During the discussion that followed, participants emphasized: the need to address individual and household debt; youth involvement in decision-making; enabling mechanisms for municipalities to manage resources; and access to capital markets.

The dialogue then focused on innovative approaches to provision of infrastructure and related services.

Jawaid Akhtar, Managing Director, Karnataka Urban Infrastructure Development Corporation, described an innovative scheme to raise funds from capital markets for infrastructure development in Bangalore, India, which blended establishment of a pool fund trust, with the issuance of bonds, access of government funds, international loans and contributions by direct beneficiaries.

Julio Pines, Secretary of Planning, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, presented his citys experience with participatory budgeting in the areas of sanitation, healthcare, education, and environment. He highlighted the efficiency of this approach as a combination of direct democracy and technical expertise that can support such participation.

Noting that his bank is a large source of funding for municipalities, Brian Field, European Investment Bank, outlined criteria for successful leveraging of funding by municipalities, including: an integrated medium-term plan coupled with a long-term vision, public involvement, and leadership at all levels.

Ensuing discussion focused on: ensuring sound financial management; improving expenditure; using ISO 9000 for certification; public participation in raising funds; constraints limiting municipal borrowing; participatory budgeting; using natural resources as a revenue source; and expenditure management.

Participants also heard an address by Sagira Tayab Ansari, a former pavement dweller in Mumbai, India, who successfully worked through a community network with the municipality to stop demolition of dwellings and to build new homes. Ansari said she has just moved into her new home and is now working to provide affordable housing for 15,000 homeless families.

Michael Lippe, Transparency International, stressed the importance of transparency and explained how leadership, oversight, and fair penalties ensure accountability.

Lin Guoqiang, Mayor of Nanning, China, spoke of lowering taxes to attract investors and described channels, including land management reform, for raising revenue.

Sierra closed the session by noting consensus on: a framework where local governments have borrowing authority; credit worthiness, meaning raising revenues in ways affordable to the poor and linked to users needs and desires and avoiding unsustainable local debt; and increased reliance of municipalities on domestic markets rather than on international finance.

ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT: Leadership in Sustainability: This session was chaired by Elizabeth Gateau, General Secretary, United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG).

Wim Deetman, Mayor of The Hague and President of the Association of Netherlands Municipalities, said that there are three major local government themes: decentralization, which ensures accountability, equity, transparency and the rule of law; basic services for all, a precondition of the commitment of citizens; and financial autonomy, essential for sound decision-making.

David Bronconnier, Mayor of Calgary, Canada, described a survey of 18,000 citizens to address questions such as why people live there, what they expect in the next 100 years, and how to make change work for Calgary. The results will be used for reallocation of resources and decisions on policy, which will be taken to the rest of the population.

Joo Avamileno, Executive Secretary of Mercociudades and Mayor of Santo Andr, Brazil, described the network of Mercosur Cities, a league of cities in the southern cone of South America including Paraguay, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, along with associates in Peru, Chile and Bolivia.

Sybilla Dekker, Minister for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment of the Netherlands, noted that partnership goes beyond cooperation and collaboration and emphasized national/local government financial partnership. She described a neighbourhood renewal project in the Netherlands where national government has been successfully engaged along with private sector financing.

Simon Compaore, Mayor of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, emphasized the role of partnerships in providing financing for decentralisation, and the value of consultations with citizens and establishing new relationships and fostering partnerships to deliver essential public services. He described some of the current projects underway in Ouagadougou including a partnership with the International Association of French-speaking Mayors (IMAF) and a local youth organization to carry out work on HIV/AIDS.

Anna Tibaijuka, UN-HABITAT Executive Director, welcomed the establishment of the UCLG as a mechanism for locally elected officials to engage at the international level and said that the UN General Assembly has now established a rule permitting representatives of local governments to participate in UN-HABITAT Governing Council meetings, although without the right to vote. In response to a question about whether the Kenyan girls quartet in the opening session was singing about de-urbanization, she said they were depicting problems of youth in a big city, and their need to acquire land.

In response to questions, Avamileno said that in Santo Andr participatory funding processes have promoted more inclusive public policy and forced the city to be more responsive to citizens. Deetman mentioned UCLG efforts, Bronconnier described Calgary programs, and Compaore outlined Ougadougou programmes to involve minorities and youth in city decision-making.


GENDERING LAND TOOLS: This roundtable was chaired by Lindiwe Sisulu, South Africas Minister of Housing.

Dekker stressed that secure tenure of land and property for women is not a question of affordability, but of accessibility. She highlighted the findings of a study in Sub-Saharan Africa, which showed that an overwhelming majority of women cannot inherit land or property in their own right and are entirely dependent on men, and that obstacles are both legal and cultural. She called for global action to address insecurity of tenure and expressed support for UN-HABITAT activities in this regard.

Noting that womens land and property rights are hampered by lack of gendered land tools, Anne Stenhammer, Norways Minister for International Development, called for policies that reflect womens experiences and realities.

Tibaijuka lamented that while womens rights on paper have increased over the last decades, in reality their access to land and property has declined. She welcomed the launch of the Global Land Tool Network (GLTN), noting that it seeks to identify appropriate tools, ensure that they are gendered, replicate existing successes, and close existing gaps.

Siraj Sait, GLTN, presented the networks concept, structure and stages. Clarissa Augustinus, GLTN, supported by many, proposed to review the progress in gendering land tools at WUF4.

Several speakers highlighted cases of discrimination against women associated with land and property tenure.

Raquel Rolnik, Secretary, Brazils National Secretariat of Urban Programmes, urged continued stakeholder pressure to secure land tenure for women.

Agnes Kallibala, Chair, G77 and China Nairobi Chapter, said the main objective of gendering land tools is to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on womens empowerment and slum upgrading.

Angie Balata, Habitat International Coalition, drew attention to faith-based land tools, in particular property inheritance rights in Islamic law, and Birte Scholz, Center for Housing Rights and Evictions, to human rights instruments.

Jennifer Whittal, University of Cape Town, South Africa, called for efforts to increase the number of female land professionals.

Jan Peterson, Chair, Huairou Commission, pointed to opportunities for societal change brought about by conflicts and the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

Shivani Bhardwaj called for a womens resource right agenda, which includes redistribution of land and putting resources under legal control of women.

Summarizing the roundtable discussions, Mona Serageldin, Harvard University, noted that: increasing scarcity and value of land decreases womens access to it; strength of customs and traditions is diminished by changing technology and governance frameworks as well as civil strife and conflict. She also noted that women often refrain from pressing rights that jeopardize family cohesion or could lead to harassment or abuse, stressing that gendering land tools is a multistakeholder process, which first involves family and community leaders. In closing, Serageldin stressed that culture and faith create both impediments and opportunities for gendering land tools.

YOUTH ROUNDTABLE: This roundtable, moderated by Avi Lewis, Canadian award-winning documentary filmmaker and television journalist, and Doug Ragan, Environmental Youth Alliance and Manager, WUF and Youth Organizing Committee, led a highly charged session that built on the momentum generated at the World Youth Forum held from 16-18 June 2006 in Vancouver. Noting that half of the worlds population is under 25, Lewis underscored the importance of understanding how to unleash the power, curiosity and impatience of youth to contribute to solving urgent global problems.

Participants identified a range of barriers to youth leading and overcoming these problems through informal exchanges with input from experts and youth from all regions of the world. Participants voiced their ideas concerning: the need to engage in partnerships with youth to transform societal norms; the importance of building youth partnerships between North and South; the value of art, culture and sports as avenues to engage youth; the need to change the representation of youth in the media; the value of education and training; the need to involve youth in decision-making; the value of youth participation in politics; and the importance of fostering local youth initiatives.

Noting the dire realities for youth in developing countries with respect to education, health, employment, drugs, HIV/AIDS, violence, home eviction, and child labor, several developing country participants called for more opportunities to share experiences and for youth in the North to support hope and effect change in the South. Muratha Kinuthia, NEPAD Kenya Secretariat, called for a broader perspective on youth issues that focuses on development and goes beyond representation.

On barriers to youth participation, Jamil Bundalli, Canadian Urban Institute, called for strengthening the ethic of investing in youth. Several participants said it was imperative to go beyond tokenism with respect to youth engagement and to harness youths power of numbers. Kelly LHirondelle, World Youth Forum, said the message should be kept simple to garner the political will to push forward a positive youth agenda.

On the value of networking and developing personal relationships at meetings such as WUF3, Stoney McCart, Director, Centre of Excellence for Youth Engagement of Canada, noted the similarities in the experiences of youth around the world. Several youth called on participants to go to the substantive roundtables to send a message on the need to mainstream youth in municipal government and urban policy-making.

In a dramatic finale to the roundtable, Lewis led the participants out of the venue to show solidarity and defend the rights of Brazilian youth participants who had been evicted from the conference for unconfirmed reasons.

UNIVERSITIES ROUNDTABLE: The roundtable focused on two themes: guiding principles for partnering, and learning and diffusion initiatives.

Co-Chair Tony Dorcey, University of British Columbia (UBC), invited participants to discuss how universities can absorb and diffuse good ideas and lessons learned.

Lars Reutersward, UN-HABITAT, identified the need to link centers of learning and urged an applied, field-based research focus. Erminia Maricato, University of So Paulo, cautioned that decentralization might lead to policy fragmentation and urged tailoring poverty reduction to local realities. Peter Boothroyd, UBC, stated the case for universities being engaged with development, noting that they can contribute to project continuity, and the role of students as service providers.

Peter Ngau, University of Nairobi, noted challenges associated with resisting slum formation and cautioned that partnerships often bring together divergent interests. Martin Smolka, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, said an improved understanding of land markets is desperately needed. Michael MGonigle, University of Victoria, noted the need to view universities as real-world actors which should be held to the same sustainability principles they espouse, and identified the potential for harnessing the power of students.

In the lively debate that followed, participants discussed: the importance of trust and equity in partnerships; building alliances between universities and practitioners; support for practical grassroots planning efforts; and using an interdisciplinary approach to avoid compartmentalization. Several participants noted that universities can play a role in independent monitoring of MDG implementation.

Pietro Garau, University of Rome, emphasized the need to listen to the South. Jean Wolfe, McGill University, emphasized inter-university collaboration and combining theory with field-based learning.

Boothroyd identified the untapped potential for universities to be development partners. Marcello Balbo, University of Venice, urged universities to challenge the development agenda set by the North. Margo Fryer, UBC, suggested that students can play a leadership role in liaising with communities, and urged long-term sustained partnerships.

Many participants recommended that South-South partnerships should play a greater role. One participant called for the use of the internet to advance collaborative efforts, highlighting the Global Urban Sustainability Services Exchange. Many participants agreed that universities need to become service engines while delivering education. One delegate suggested that universities should play a role in holding governments accountable for progress achieved between WUF events, and that they should develop indicators by which to measure the gap between rhetoric and implementation.

ENVIRONMENT ROUNDTABLE: This roundtable was organized by UN-HABITAT in cooperation with the Canadian Environment Network (CEN). It was co-chaired by Arciris Garay, Coordinator, Youth for Social Justice Network, and Hayat Redi, Deputy Director, EVERYONE, and moderated by Amelia Clarke, former President, Sierra Club of Canada. Moderator Clarke outlined the purposes of the session, including identification of common problems and development of project ideas for partnerships. The discussion was first held in five sub-groups, which reported back to the roundtable.

Youth and Education Group: The group identified lack of funding, staff and time as the major problems they have encountered. They suggested creating opportunities and space for youth to collaborate across borders, for example through the establishment of an informal youth forum in Africa.

Community Capacity Building Group: The group also identified lack of human and financial resources as the major obstacle. They suggested that the solution is to mobilize all sectors of the community to develop and implement community-based sustainable projects, which should be global, but have local impact.

Food Group: The problems identified by the group included food tariff subsidies and trade barriers, which are obstacles for achieving food security. They proposed a short-term project on food security in Canada, holding a conference in October in Vancouver, and a long-term project on the issue with Ethiopia. To address the problem, they suggested developing partnerships and making use of the Internet.

Safe environment group: Problems identified by this group included the lack of: political will; capacity, information and experiences; use of traditional knowledge; adequate policies, laws and regulations; monitoring; and appropriate science and technology. Potential solutions identified included: partnership; development of a shared vision; communication; and resource-sharing.

Energy and resource group: The group suggested: developing renewable energy; building capacity; creating partnerships; promoting social equity; engaging local people as well as international players and academia.

Co-Chair Garay summarized the discussion saying the CEN will continue to support this dialogue process to further develop the five partnerships formed today. She expressed enthusiasm for the roundtables willingness to work together with all partners in building healthy communities, achieving food security, and strengthening capacity.

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND MEDIA ROUNDTABLE: Moderator Monika Ille, Aboriginal Peoples Television Network, Canada (APTN), welcomed participants, noting it was National Aboriginal Day. Co-Chair Tom Perlmutter, National Film Board of Canada (NFB), noted that the session was an important example of government agency cooperation and said NFB pioneers the empowerment of aboriginal filmmakers. Co-Chair, Fred Caron, Assistant Deputy Minister, Office of the Federal Interlocutor for Metis and Non-Status Indians, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, saw WUF3 as a means of exchanging best practices and said he hoped to achieve some permanent partnerships.

Manon Barbeau, Corporation Designer-Producer, and Melanie Kistabish, Coordinator-Director, presented the first case study which concerned Wapikoni Mobile, a mobile studio for filmmaker training that has been touring Aboriginal communities in Quebec for more than two years.

Kamala Todd, Project Director, presented Our City, Our Voices, a videostream from Storyscapes, a community arts project that supports Aboriginal people in telling their stories of Vancouver.

Marilena Corra, Workshop Coordinator, presented on Video in the Villages, an initiative from Brazil to train indigenous peoples in filmmaking so that they can portray themselves and the world around them.

In a heated dialogue session, discussions focused on indigenous participation in WUF3. While panelist Roger Maaka, University of Saskatchewan, suggested that the inclusion of an indigenous session in WUF3 challenges the stereotype that they do not belong in the city, and one participant noted an improvement since WUF2, many criticized the lack on inclusion of youth and indigenous people.

Many pointed out that WUF3 had missed the opportunity to provide training on key issues such as ensuring adequate housing; had neglected nomadic peoples rights; and had not provided Spanish interpretation throughout the conference, while others urged action rather than words.

Noting the significant impact of mainstream media, participants also spoke of indigenous media projects and berated the lack of and misrepresentation of indigenous people in mass media. While many acknowledged panelists work, one participant stressed the need to frame indigenous peoples portrayal within indigenous culture and language. Panelists Jean LaRose, APTN, and Ray Gerow, Talking Rocks, urged indigenous people to take ownership of their fight for representation and an Indigenous Peoples Party representative called for support for an indigenous declaration being presented to WUF3 plenary.

SPIRITUALITY ROUNDTABLE: This roundtable was convened under the theme Bridging the Gap: Spirituality and Sustainability in the Urban Context. Following a First Nations welcome and prayer, Chair Angela Hryniuk, Executive Director, Interspiritual Center of Vancouver Society, offered introductory remarks and urged participants to walk the spiritual path with practical shoes with regard to sustainability.

Michael Hryniuk, Vancouver School of Theology, remarked that the source of vision driving WUF3 extends beyond technical rationality and political agendas. Enrique Pealosa, former Mayor of Bogot, Colombia, stated that solving urban problems involves not only financial resources but also changing our way of life. He underscored that citizen happiness is the true measure of whether cities are succeeding.

Drawing attention to promiscuity and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Kampala, Uganda, Sam Luboga, Makerere University, discussed how faith-based initiatives can address sustainability, inclusion and social cohesion in urban areas. Moderator Gwendolyn Hallsmith, Executive Director, Global Community Initiatives, raised the question of whether relocating peoples needs outside the material realm might improve our cities and societies.

Discussion focused on: finding contentment and connection to other human beings; the types of examples set for young people; the need for global peace in creating sustainability; the spiritual shock of not being able to spend time in nature; and the role of urban spaces in hosting spiritual festivals, allowing reflection and rekindling a sense of awe. Delegates also called for cooperation among people identifying with spirituality at large, organized faith traditions, and humanist perspectives.

Surinder Kumar, General Manager, Management Services Group, Sahara India Pariwar, India, discussed how sustainability projects can integrate spiritual directives. Before highlighting the importance of happiness and which aspects of human nature may hinder sustainability, Mae-Chee Sunsanee Sthirasuta, Buddhist nun and spiritual leader, invited the roundtable participants to stand in a large circle and share back massages with one another.

Closing remarks by Hereditary Chief Phil Lane Jr., CEO, United Indians of All Tribes Foundation, described a vision of urban wellbeing that is informed by a spiritual understanding of human community. Moderator Hallsmith remarked that spiritual needs are real needs. She emphasized that civic leaders should systematically consider how the meaning, purpose and connectedness that drive spiritual growth are being met in the community. Chair Hryniuk called for a formal recommendation to include spirituality on the agenda at every future UN-HABITAT conference.

MAYORS ROUNDTABLE: With a theme of Local Governments at the Crossroads: Approaching the Millennium Development Goals through Practical Innovation and Local Action, this roundtable was co-chaired by Smangaliso Mkhatshwa, Councillor of Tshwane, South Africa and UCLG Co-President, and Grald Tremblay, Mayor of Montreal and UCLG Vice-President. In their opening statements, they noted improvements in human rights and local autonomy of cities but lamented the financial crisis that prevents cities from achieving the MDGs.

Moderator Dominique Dennery, President, Dennery Resources, polled the mayors on implementation of the MDGs. While admitting general lack of public awareness about the MDGs, 75 percent of the 130 mayors present said the MDGs are priorities in their cities and only half said they had been involved in a dialogue with national governments on this issue. The panelists suggested that the mayors need to communicate their plans more effectively to both citizens and national governments.

Four mayors presented case studies. Gloria Kovach, president of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, and Councillor of Guelph, Ontario, presented research indicating that citizen awareness generates greater support for the MDGs.

Mary Jane Ortega, Mayor of San Fernando, the Philippines, said city associations enable communities to address MDGs by providing technical assistance.

Kastharina Tarras-Walberg, Deputy Mayor of Stockholm, described Stockholm as a city of sustainability, with a commitment to environmental goals such as sustainable energy, waste and water recycling, and reduction of traffic.

Abdel Minim Al-Avys, Mayor of Beirut, said Beirut has set goals for its reconstruction after years of war, namely: rebuilding its sewerage, water, sanitation and communication infrastructure, and investing in employment and development.

During the ensuing discussion, mayors from twenty cities presented examples of programmes for implementing MDGs and targets, particularly upgrading slums and improving water and other services. Petr Kopriva, President, UN-HABITAT Governing Council (GC), asked mayors to help the Committee of Permanent Representatives prepare the agenda for GC-21. Sierra urged the mayors to engage in dialogues with their national governments to facilitate applications for programme funds.

In closing, Co-Chairs Tremblay and Mkhatshwa called for the mobilization of networks of stakeholders and donors such as the World Bank to secure funding for implementing MDGs. Mkhatshwa noted that the MDGs are doable, and proposed that mayors report on their implementation at WUF4 in 2008. 


Habitat JAM Networking Session
13:30 - 15:30
Moved to Ballroom C

Shape of Cities Dialogue
10:00 - 12:00
Moved to Ballrooms B & C

Energy: Local Action, Global Impact Dialogue
10:00 - 12:00
Moved to Exhibition Hall A

Further information


National governments
Negotiating blocs
Group of 77 and China
Non-state coalitions